THE SCALE INSECTS, WHITEFLIES, APHIDS AND PSYLLIDS OF THE NEEM TREE, AZADIRACHTA INDICA (MELIACEAE)

H. Schmutterer

Abstract


THE SCALE INSECTS, WHITEFLIES, APHIDS AND PSYLLIDS OF THE NEEM TREE, AZADIRACHTA INDICA (MELIACEAE).

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), is attacked by numerous scale insect species, mainly diaspidids, coccids and pseudococcids, as well as a few species belonging to other families in the Sternorrhyncha. Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead) is the most important pest of neem; others such as Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) and Pulvinarisca jacksoni (Newstead) are minor pests of local importance. Water stress or unsuitable soil conditions in Africa and elsewhere may reduce the resistance of the trees and, therefore, increase the probability of outbreaks. Most scale insects attacking neem are more or less polyphagous species. The closely-related chinaberry tree, Melia azedarach, is also attacked by many scale insect species, suggesting that neither of these closely related plants can protect themselves against those scale insects species which can either avoid the tissues containing the active ingredients or are naturally resistant to them.

Key words: Indian lilac, Persian lilac, azadirachtin, antifeedant, Africa, Asia, South Pacific, tropical America, Oryzaephilus surinamensis. damage, pest status, Oecophylla smaragdina, Aleyrodoidea, Psylloidea, Aphidoidea.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15162/0425-1016/855

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ISSN: 0425-1016